Impermanence in Linux – Exclusive (By Hari Iyer)

Impermanence, also called Anicca or Anitya, is one of the essential doctrines and a part of three marks of existence in Buddhism The doctrine asserts that all of conditioned existence, without exception, is “transient, evanescent, inconstant”

On Linux, the root of all randomness is something called the kernel entropy pool. This is a large (4,096 bit) number kept privately in the kernel’s memory. There are 24096 possibilities for this number so it can contain up to 4,096 bits of entropy. There is one caveat – the kernel needs to be able to fill that memory from a source with 4,096 bits of entropy. And that’s the hard part: finding that much randomness.

The entropy pool is used in two ways: random numbers are generated from it and it is replenished with entropy by the kernel. When random numbers are generated from the pool the entropy of the pool is diminished (because the person receiving the random number has some information about the pool itself). So as the pool’s entropy diminishes as random numbers are handed out, the pool must be replenished.

Replenishing the pool is called stirring: new sources of entropy are stirred into the mix of bits in the pool.

This is the key to how random number generation works on Linux. If randomness is needed, it’s derived from the entropy pool. When available, other sources of randomness are used to stir the entropy pool and make it less predictable. The details are a little mathematical, but it’s interesting to understand how the Linux random number generator works as the principles and techniques apply to random number generation in other software and systems.

The kernel keeps a rough estimate of the number of bits of entropy in the pool. You can check the value of this estimate through the following command:

cat /proc/sys/kernel/random/entropy_avail

A healthy Linux system with a lot of entropy available will have return close to the full 4,096 bits of entropy. If the value returned is less than 200, the system is running low on entropy.

The kernel is watching you

I mentioned that the system takes other sources of randomness and uses this to stir the entropy pool. This is achieved using something called a timestamp.

Most systems have precise internal clocks. Every time that a user interacts with a system, the value of the clock at that time is recorded as a timestamp. Even though the year, month, day and hour are generally guessable, the millisecond and microsecond are not and therefore the timestamp contains some entropy. Timestamps obtained from the user’s mouse and keyboard along with timing information from the network and disk each have different amount of entropy.

How does the entropy found in a timestamp get transferred to the entropy pool? Simple, use math to mix it in. Well, simple if you like math.

Just mix it in

A fundamental property of entropy is that it mixes well. If you take two unrelated random streams and combine them, the new stream cannot have less entropy. Taking a number of low entropy sources and combining them results in a high entropy source.

All that’s needed is the right combination function: a function that can be used to combine two sources of entropy. One of the simplest such functions is the logical exclusive or (XOR). This truth table shows how bits x and y coming from different random streams are combined by the XOR function.

Even if one source of bits does not have much entropy, there is no harm in XORing it into another source. Entropy always increases. In the Linux kernel, a combination of XORs is used to mix timestamps into the main entropy pool.

Generating random numbers

Cryptographic applications require very high entropy. If a 128 bit key is generated with only 64 bits of entropy then it can be guessed in 264 attempts instead of 2128 attempts. That is the difference between needing a thousand computers running for a few years to brute force the key versus needing all the computers ever created running for longer than the history of the universe to do so.

Cryptographic applications require close to one bit of entropy per bit. If the system’s pool has fewer than 4,096 bits of entropy, how does the system return a fully random number? One way to do this is to use a cryptographic hash function.

A cryptographic hash function takes an input of any size and outputs a fixed size number. Changing one bit of the input will change the output completely. Hash functions are good at mixing things together. This mixing property spreads the entropy from the input evenly through the output. If the input has more bits of entropy than the size of the output, the output will be highly random. This is how highly entropic random numbers are derived from the entropy pool.

The hash function used by the Linux kernel is the standard SHA-1 cryptographic hash. By hashing the entire pool and and some additional arithmetic, 160 random bits are created for use by the system. When this happens, the system lowers its estimate of the entropy in the pool accordingly.

Above I said that applying a hash like SHA-1 could be dangerous if there wasn’t enough entropy in the pool. That’s why it’s critical to keep an eye on the available system entropy: if it drops too low the output of the random number generator could have less entropy that it appears to have.

Running out of entropy

One of the dangers of a system is running out of entropy. When the system’s entropy estimate drops to around the 160 bit level, the length of a SHA-1 hash, things get tricky, and how they effect programs and performance depends on which of two Linux random number generators are used.

Linux exposes two interfaces for random data that behave differently when the entropy level is low. They are /dev/random and /dev/urandom. When the entropy pool becomes predictable, both interfaces for requesting random numbers become problematic.

When the entropy level is too low, /dev/random blocks and does not return until the level of entropy in the system is high enough. This guarantees high entropy random numbers. If /dev/random is used in a time-critical service and the system runs low on entropy, the delays could be detrimental to the quality of service.

On the other hand, /dev/urandom does not block. It continues to return the hashed value of its entropy pool even though there is little to no entropy in it. This low-entropy data is not suited for cryptographic use.

The solution to the problem is to simply add more entropy into the system.

Hardware random number generation to the rescue?

Intel’s Ivy Bridge family of processors have an interesting feature called “secure key.” These processors contain a special piece of hardware inside that generates random numbers. The single assembly instruction RDRAND returns allegedly high entropy random data derived on the chip.

It has been suggested that Intel’s hardware number generator may not be fully random. Since it is baked into the silicon, that assertion is hard to audit and verify. As it turns out, even if the numbers generated have some bias, it can still help as long as this is not the only source of randomness in the system. Even if the random number generator itself had a back door, the mixing property of randomness means that it cannot lower the amount of entropy in the pool.

On Linux, if a hardware random number generator is present, the Linux kernel will use the XOR function to mix the output of RDRAND into the hash of the entropy pool. This happens here in the Linux source code (the XOR operator is ^ in C).

Third party entropy generators

Hardware number generation is not available everywhere, and the sources of randomness polled by the Linux kernel itself are somewhat limited. For this situation, a number of third party random number generation tools exist. Examples of these are haveged, which relies on processor cache timing, audio-entropyd and video-entropyd which work by sampling the noise from an external audio or video input device. By mixing these additional sources of locally collected entropy into the Linux entropy pool, the entropy can only go up.


10 Important “rsync” command – UNIX

Rsync (Remote Sync) is a most commonly used command for copying and synchronizing files and directories remotely as well as locally in Linux/Unix systems. With the help of rsync command you can copy and synchronize your data remotely and locally across directories, across disks and networks, perform data backups and mirroring between two Linux machines.

This article explains 10 basic and advanced usage of the rsync command to transfer your files remotely and locally in Linux based machines. You don’t need to be root user to run rsync command.

Some advantages and features of Rsync command
  1. It efficiently copies and sync files to or from a remote system.
  2. Supports copying links, devices, owners, groups and permissions.
  3. It’s faster than scp (Secure Copy) because rsync uses remote-update protocol which allows to transfer just the differences between two sets of files. First time, it copies the whole content of a file or a directory from source to destination but from next time, it copies only the changed blocks and bytes to the destination.
  4. Rsync consumes less bandwidth as it uses compression and decompression method while sending and receiving data both ends.
Basic syntax of rsync command
# rsync options source destination
Some common options used with rsync commands
  1. -v : verbose
  2. -r : copies data recursively (but don’t preserve timestamps and permission while transferring data
  3. -a : archive mode, archive mode allows copying files recursively and it also preserves symbolic links, file permissions, user & group ownerships and timestamps
  4. -z : compress file data
  5. -h : human-readable, output numbers in a human-readable format


Install rsync in your Linux machine

We can install rsync package with the help of following command.

# yum install rsync (On Red Hat based systems)
# apt-get install rsync (On Debian based systems)

1. Copy/Sync Files and Directory Locally

Copy/Sync a File on a Local Computer

This following command will sync a single file on a local machine from one location to another location. Here in this example, a file name backup.tar needs to be copied or synced to /tmp/backups/ folder.

[root@tecmint]# rsync -zvh backup.tar /tmp/backups/
created directory /tmp/backups
sent 14.71M bytes  received 31 bytes  3.27M bytes/sec
total size is 16.18M  speedup is 1.10

In above example, you can see that if the destination is not already exists rsync will create a directory automatically for destination.

Copy/Sync a Directory on Local Computer

The following command will transfer or sync all the files of from one directory to a different directory in the same machine. Here in this example, /root/rpmpkgs contains some rpm package files and you want that directory to be copied inside /tmp/backups/ folder.

[root@tecmint]# rsync -avzh /root/rpmpkgs /tmp/backups/
sending incremental file list
sent 4.99M bytes  received 92 bytes  3.33M bytes/sec
total size is 4.99M  speedup is 1.00

2. Copy/Sync Files and Directory to or From a Server

Copy a Directory from Local Server to a Remote Server

This command will sync a directory from a local machine to a remote machine. For example: There is a folder in your local computer “rpmpkgs” which contains some RPM packages and you want that local directory’s content send to a remote server, you can use following command.

[root@tecmint]$ rsync -avz rpmpkgs/ root@
root@'s password:
sending incremental file list
sent 4993369 bytes  received 91 bytes  399476.80 bytes/sec
total size is 4991313  speedup is 1.00
Copy/Sync a Remote Directory to a Local Machine

This command will help you sync a remote directory to a local directory. Here in this example, a directory /home/hari/rpmpkgs which is on a remote server is being copied in your local computer in /tmp/myrpms.

[root@tecmint]# rsync -avzh root@ /tmp/myrpms
root@'s password:
receiving incremental file list
created directory /tmp/myrpms
sent 91 bytes  received 4.99M bytes  322.16K bytes/sec
total size is 4.99M  speedup is 1.00

3. Rsync Over SSH

With rsync, we can use SSH (Secure Shell) for data transfer, using SSH protocol while transferring our data you can be ensured that your data is being transferred in a secured connection with encryption so that nobody can read your data while it is being transferred over the wire on the internet.

Also when we use rsync we need to provide the user/root password to accomplish that particular task, so using SSH option will send your logins in an encrypted manner so that your password will be safe.

Copy a File from a Remote Server to a Local Server with SSH

To specify a protocol with rsync you need to give “-e” option with protocol name you want to use. Here in this example, We will be using “ssh” with “-e” option and perform data transfer.

[root@tecmint]# rsync -avzhe ssh root@ /tmp/
root@'s password:
receiving incremental file list
sent 30 bytes  received 8.12K bytes  1.48K bytes/sec
total size is 30.74K  speedup is 3.77
Copy a File from a Local Server to a Remote Server with SSH
[root@tecmint]# rsync -avzhe ssh backup.tar root@
root@'s password:
sending incremental file list
sent 14.71M bytes  received 31 bytes  1.28M bytes/sec
total size is 16.18M  speedup is 1.10


4. Show Progress While Transferring Data with rsync

To show the progress while transferring the data from one machine to a different machine, we can use ‘–progress’ option for it. It displays the files and the time remaining to complete the transfer.

[root@tecmint]# rsync -avzhe ssh --progress /home/rpmpkgs root@
root@'s password:
sending incremental file list
created directory /root/rpmpkgs
1.02M 100%        2.72MB/s        0:00:00 (xfer#1, to-check=3/5)
99.04K 100%  241.19kB/s        0:00:00 (xfer#2, to-check=2/5)
1.79M 100%        1.56MB/s        0:00:01 (xfer#3, to-check=1/5)
2.09M 100%        1.47MB/s        0:00:01 (xfer#4, to-check=0/5)
sent 4.99M bytes  received 92 bytes  475.56K bytes/sec
total size is 4.99M  speedup is 1.00

5. Use of –include and –exclude Options

These two options allows us to include and exclude files by specifying parameters with these option helps us to specify those files or directories which you want to include in your sync and exclude files and folders with you don’t want to be transferred.

Here in this example, rsync command will include those files and directory only which starts with ‘R’ and exclude all other files and directory.

[root@tecmint]# rsync -avze ssh --include 'R*' --exclude '*' root@ /root/rpm
root@'s password:
receiving incremental file list
created directory /root/rpm
sent 67 bytes  received 167289 bytes  7438.04 bytes/sec
total size is 434176  speedup is 2.59

6. Use of –delete Option

If a file or directory not exist at the source, but already exists at the destination, you might want to delete that existing file/directory at the target while syncing .

We can use ‘–delete‘ option to delete files that are not there in source directory.

Source and target are in sync. Now creating new file test.txt at the target.

[root@tecmint]# touch test.txt
[root@tecmint]# rsync -avz --delete root@ .
receiving file list ... done
deleting test.txt
sent 26 bytes  received 390 bytes  48.94 bytes/sec
total size is 45305958  speedup is 108908.55

Target has the new file called test.txt, when synchronize with the source with ‘–delete‘ option, it removed the file test.txt.

7. Set the Max Size of Files to be Transferred

You can specify the Max file size to be transferred or sync. You can do it with “–max-size” option. Here in this example, Max file size is 200k, so this command will transfer only those files which are equal or smaller than 200k.

[root@tecmint]# rsync -avzhe ssh --max-size='200k' /var/lib/rpm/ root@
root@'s password:
sending incremental file list
created directory /root/tmprpm
sent 189.79K bytes  received 224 bytes  13.10K bytes/sec
total size is 38.08M  speedup is 200.43

8. Automatically Delete source Files after successful Transfer

Now, suppose you have a main web server and a data backup server, you created a daily backup and synced it with your backup server, now you don’t want to keep that local copy of backup in your web server.

So, will you wait for transfer to complete and then delete those local backup file manually? Of Course NO. This automatic deletion can be done using ‘–remove-source-files‘ option.

[root@tecmint]# rsync --remove-source-files -zvh backup.tar /tmp/backups/
sent 14.71M bytes  received 31 bytes  4.20M bytes/sec
total size is 16.18M  speedup is 1.10
[root@tecmint]# ll backup.tar
ls: backup.tar: No such file or directory

9. Do a Dry Run with rsync

If you are a newbie and using rsync and don’t know what exactly your command going do. Rsync could really mess up the things in your destination folder and then doing an undo can be a tedious job.

Use of this option will not make any changes only do a dry run of the command and shows the output of the command, if the output shows exactly same you want to do then you can remove ‘–dry-run‘ option from your command and run on the terminal.

root@tecmint]# rsync --dry-run --remove-source-files -zvh backup.tar /tmp/backups/
sent 35 bytes  received 15 bytes  100.00 bytes/sec
total size is 16.18M  speedup is 323584.00 (DRY RUN)

10. Set Bandwidth Limit and Transfer File

You can set the bandwidth limit while transferring data from one machine to another machine with the the help of ‘–bwlimit‘ option. This options helps us to limit I/O bandwidth.

[root@tecmint]# rsync --bwlimit=100 -avzhe ssh  /var/lib/rpm/  root@
root@'s password:
sending incremental file list
sent 324 bytes  received 12 bytes  61.09 bytes/sec
total size is 38.08M  speedup is 113347.05

Also, by default rsync syncs changed blocks and bytes only, if you want explicitly want to sync whole file then you use ‘-W‘ option with it.

[root@tecmint]# rsync -zvhW backup.tar /tmp/backups/backup.tar
sent 14.71M bytes  received 31 bytes  3.27M bytes/sec
total size is 16.18M  speedup is 1.10

rrsync -azP –progress “<user>@<host>:<absolute path>” <location to be copied>

Source :-

Fork: retry: Resource temporarily unavailable


It was reported that a particular application user is not able to Login.

1. Tried Logging to the system with root user it was fine.
2. Tried to switich user it failed with an Error “Write Failed; Broken Pipe”
3. Created a file and it was working.
4. Tried switch the user. This time it goes through.
5. Tried running some jobs with the user. It throws an error saying “fork: retry: Resource temporarily unavailable”.
6. Then checked the “/etc/security/limits.d/90-nproc.conf” file to find out that all the users
are given nproc limit as 1024.

1. Changed it to a higher value and it solved the issue.

2. I changed the value to 4096.

How to use parallel ssh (PSSH) for executing ssh in parallel on a number of Linux/Unix/BSD servers

Recently I come across a nice little nifty tool called pssh to run a single command on multiple Linux / UNIX / BSD servers. You can easily increase your productivy with this SSH tool.
More about pssh
pssh is a command line tool for executing ssh in parallel on some hosts. It specialties includes:
  1. Sending input to all of the processes
  2. Inputting a password to ssh
  3. Saving output to files
  4. IT/sysadmin taks automation such as patching servers
  5. Timing out and more
Let us see how to install and use pssh on Linux and Unix-like system.
You can install pssh as per your Linux and Unix variant. Once package installed, you can get parallel versions of the openssh tools. Included in the installation:
  1. Parallel ssh (pssh command)
  2. Parallel scp (pscp command )
  3. Parallel rsync (prsync command)
  4. Parallel nuke (pnuke command)
  5. Parallel slurp (pslurp command)
Install pssh on Debian/Ubuntu Linux
Type the following apt-get command/apt command to install pssh:
$ sudo apt install pssh
$ sudo apt-get install pssh
Sample outputs:
Fig.01: Installing pssh on Debian/Ubuntu Linux

Fig.01: Installing pssh on Debian/Ubuntu Linux

Install pssh on Apple MacOS X
Type the following brew command:
$ brew install pssh
Sample outputs:
Fig.02: Installing pssh on MacOS Unix

Fig.02: Installing pssh on MacOS Unix

Install pssh on FreeBSD unix
Type any one of the command:
# cd /usr/ports/security/pssh/ && make install clean
# pkg install pssh
Sample outputs:
Fig.03: Installing pssh on FreeBSD

Fig.03: Installing pssh on FreeBSD

Install pssh on RHEL/CentOS/Fedora Linux
First turn on EPEL repo and type the following command yum command:
$ sudo yum install pssh
Sample outputs:
Fig.04: Installing pssh on RHEL/CentOS/Red Hat Enterprise Linux

Fig.04: Installing pssh on RHEL/CentOS/Red Hat Enterprise Linux

Install pssh on Fedora Linux
Type the following dnf command:
$ sudo dnf install pssh
Sample outputs:
Fig.05: Installing pssh on Fedora

Fig.05: Installing pssh on Fedora

Install pssh on Arch Linux
Type the following command:
$ sudo pacman -S python-pip
$ pip install pssh
How to use pssh command
First you need to create a text file called hosts file from which pssh read hosts names. The syntax is pretty simple. Each line in the host file are of the form [user@]host[:port] and can include blank lines and comments lines beginning with “#”. Here is my sample file named ~/.pssh_hosts_files:
$ cat ~/.pssh_hosts_files

Run the date command all hosts:
$ pssh -i -h ~/.pssh_hosts_files date
Sample outputs:
[1] 18:10:10 [SUCCESS] root@ Sun Feb 26 18:10:10 IST 2017 [2] 18:10:10 [SUCCESS] vivek@dellm6700 Sun Feb 26 18:10:10 IST 2017 [3] 18:10:10 [SUCCESS] root@ Sun Feb 26 18:10:10 IST 2017 [4] 18:10:10 [SUCCESS] root@ Sun Feb 26 18:10:10 IST 2017
Run the uptime command on each host:
$ pssh -i -h ~/.pssh_hosts_files uptime
Sample outputs:
[1] 18:11:15 [SUCCESS] root@ 18:11:15 up 2:29, 0 users, load average: 0.00, 0.00, 0.00 [2] 18:11:15 [SUCCESS] vivek@dellm6700 18:11:15 up 19:06, 0 users, load average: 0.13, 0.25, 0.27 [3] 18:11:15 [SUCCESS] root@ 18:11:15 up 1:55, 0 users, load average: 0.00, 0.00, 0.00 [4] 18:11:15 [SUCCESS] root@ 6:11PM up 1 day, 21:38, 0 users, load averages: 0.12, 0.14, 0.09
You can now automate common sysadmin tasks such as patching all servers:
$ pssh -h ~/.pssh_hosts_files -- sudo yum -y update
$ pssh -h ~/.pssh_hosts_files -- sudo apt-get -y update
$ pssh -h ~/.pssh_hosts_files -- sudo apt-get -y upgrade
How do I use pssh to copy file to all servers?
The syntax is:
pscp -h ~/.pssh_hosts_files src dest
To copy $HOME/demo.txt to /tmp/ on all servers, enter:
$ pscp -h ~/.pssh_hosts_files $HOME/demo.txt /tmp/
Sample outputs:
[1] 18:17:35 [SUCCESS] vivek@dellm6700 [2] 18:17:35 [SUCCESS] root@ [3] 18:17:35 [SUCCESS] root@ [4] 18:17:35 [SUCCESS] root@
Or use the prsync command for efficient copying of files:
$ prsync -h ~/.pssh_hosts_files /etc/passwd /tmp/
$ prsync -h ~/.pssh_hosts_files *.html /var/www/html/
How do I kill processes in parallel on a number of hosts?
Use the pnuke command for killing processes in parallel on a number of hosts. The syntax is:
$ pnuke -h .pssh_hosts_files process_name
### kill nginx and firefox on hosts:
$ pnuke -h ~/.pssh_hosts_files firefox
$ pnuke -h ~/.pssh_hosts_files nginx

See pssh/pscp command man pages for more information.
pssh is a pretty good tool for parallel SSH command execution on many servers. It quite is useful if you have 5 or 10 servers. Nevertheless, if you need to do something complicated you should look into Ansible and co.

30 Shades of “Alias” Command – UNIX

You can define various types aliases as follows to save time and increase productivity.

#1: Control ls command output

The ls command lists directory contents and you can colorize the output:

## Colorize the ls output ##
alias ls='ls --color=auto'
## Use a long listing format ##
alias ll='ls -la' 
## Show hidden files ##
alias l.='ls -d .* --color=auto'

#2: Control cd command behavior

## get rid of command not found ##
alias cd..='cd ..' 
## a quick way to get out of current directory ##
alias ..='cd ..' 
alias ...='cd ../../../' 
alias ....='cd ../../../../' 
alias .....='cd ../../../../' 
alias .4='cd ../../../../' 
alias .5='cd ../../../../..'

#3: Control grep command output

grep command is a command-line utility for searching plain-text files for lines matching a regular expression:

## Colorize the grep command output for ease of use (good for log files)##
alias grep='grep --color=auto'
alias egrep='egrep --color=auto'
alias fgrep='fgrep --color=auto'

#4: Start calculator with math support

alias bc='bc -l'

#4: Generate sha1 digest

alias sha1='openssl sha1'

#5: Create parent directories on demand

mkdir command is used to create a directory:

alias mkdir='mkdir -pv'

#6: Colorize diff output

You can compare files line by line using diff and use a tool called colordiff to colorize diff output:

# install  colordiff package 🙂
alias diff='colordiff'

#7: Make mount command output pretty and human readable format

alias mount='mount |column -t'

#8: Command short cuts to save time

# handy short cuts #
alias h='history'
alias j='jobs -l'

#9: Create a new set of commands

alias path='echo -e ${PATH//:/\\n}'
alias now='date +"%T"'
alias nowtime=now
alias nowdate='date +"%d-%m-%Y"'

#10: Set vim as default

alias vi=vim 
alias svi='sudo vi' 
alias vis='vim "+set si"' 
alias edit='vim'

#11: Control output of networking tool called ping

# Stop after sending count ECHO_REQUEST packets #
alias ping='ping -c 5'
# Do not wait interval 1 second, go fast #
alias fastping='ping -c 100 -s.2'

#12: Show open ports

Use netstat command to quickly list all TCP/UDP port on the server:

alias ports='netstat -tulanp'

#13: Wakeup sleeping servers

Wake-on-LAN (WOL) is an Ethernet networking standard that allows a server to be turned on by a network message. You can quickly wakeup nas devices and server using the following aliases:

## replace mac with your actual server mac address #
alias wakeupnas01='/usr/bin/wakeonlan 00:11:32:11:15:FC'
alias wakeupnas02='/usr/bin/wakeonlan 00:11:32:11:15:FD'
alias wakeupnas03='/usr/bin/wakeonlan 00:11:32:11:15:FE'

#14: Control firewall (iptables) output

Netfilter is a host-based firewall for Linux operating systems. It is included as part of the Linux distribution and it is activated by default. This post list most common iptables solutions required by a new Linux user to secure his or her Linux operating system from intruders.

## shortcut  for iptables and pass it via sudo#
alias ipt='sudo /sbin/iptables'
# display all rules #
alias iptlist='sudo /sbin/iptables -L -n -v --line-numbers'
alias iptlistin='sudo /sbin/iptables -L INPUT -n -v --line-numbers'
alias iptlistout='sudo /sbin/iptables -L OUTPUT -n -v --line-numbers'
alias iptlistfw='sudo /sbin/iptables -L FORWARD -n -v --line-numbers'
alias firewall=iptlist

#15: Debug web server / cdn problems with curl

# get web server headers #
alias header='curl -I'
# find out if remote server supports gzip / mod_deflate or not #
alias headerc='curl -I --compress'

#16: Add safety nets

# do not delete / or prompt if deleting more than 3 files at a time #
alias rm='rm -I --preserve-root'
# confirmation #
alias mv='mv -i' 
alias cp='cp -i' 
alias ln='ln -i'
# Parenting changing perms on / #
alias chown='chown --preserve-root'
alias chmod='chmod --preserve-root'
alias chgrp='chgrp --preserve-root'

#17: Update Debian Linux server

apt-get command is used for installing packages over the internet (ftp or http). You can also upgrade all packages in a single operations:

# distro specific  - Debian / Ubuntu and friends #
# install with apt-get
alias apt-get="sudo apt-get" 
alias updatey="sudo apt-get --yes" 
# update on one command 
alias update='sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get upgrade'

#18: Update RHEL / CentOS / Fedora Linux server

yum command is a package management tool for RHEL / CentOS / Fedora Linux and friends:

## distrp specifc RHEL/CentOS ##
alias update='yum update'
alias updatey='yum -y update'

#19: Tune sudo and su

# become root #
alias root='sudo -i'
alias su='sudo -i'

#20: Pass halt/reboot via sudo

shutdown command bring the Linux / Unix system down:

# reboot / halt / poweroff
alias reboot='sudo /sbin/reboot'
alias poweroff='sudo /sbin/poweroff'
alias halt='sudo /sbin/halt'
alias shutdown='sudo /sbin/shutdown'

#21: Control web servers

# also pass it via sudo so whoever is admin can reload it without calling you #
alias nginxreload='sudo /usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx -s reload'
alias nginxtest='sudo /usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx -t'
alias lightyload='sudo /etc/init.d/lighttpd reload'
alias lightytest='sudo /usr/sbin/lighttpd -f /etc/lighttpd/lighttpd.conf -t'
alias httpdreload='sudo /usr/sbin/apachectl -k graceful'
alias httpdtest='sudo /usr/sbin/apachectl -t && /usr/sbin/apachectl -t -D DUMP_VHOSTS'

#22: Alias into our backup stuff

# if cron fails or if you want backup on demand just run these commands # 
# again pass it via sudo so whoever is in admin group can start the job #
# Backup scripts #
alias backup='sudo /home/scripts/admin/scripts/backup/ --type local --taget /raid1/backups'
alias nasbackup='sudo /home/scripts/admin/scripts/backup/ --type nas --target nas01'
alias s3backup='sudo /home/scripts/admin/scripts/backup/ --type nas --target nas01 --auth /home/scripts/admin/.authdata/amazon.keys'
alias rsnapshothourly='sudo /home/scripts/admin/scripts/backup/ --type remote --target nas03 --auth /home/scripts/admin/.authdata/ssh.keys --config /home/scripts/admin/scripts/backup/config/adsl.conf'
alias rsnapshotdaily='sudo  /home/scripts/admin/scripts/backup/ --type remote --target nas03 --auth /home/scripts/admin/.authdata/ssh.keys  --config /home/scripts/admin/scripts/backup/config/adsl.conf'
alias rsnapshotweekly='sudo /home/scripts/admin/scripts/backup/ --type remote --target nas03 --auth /home/scripts/admin/.authdata/ssh.keys  --config /home/scripts/admin/scripts/backup/config/adsl.conf'
alias rsnapshotmonthly='sudo /home/scripts/admin/scripts/backup/ --type remote --target nas03 --auth /home/scripts/admin/.authdata/ssh.keys  --config /home/scripts/admin/scripts/backup/config/adsl.conf'
alias amazonbackup=s3backup

#23: Desktop specific – play avi/mp3 files on demand

## play video files in a current directory ##
# cd ~/Download/movie-name 
# playavi or vlc 
alias playavi='mplayer *.avi'
alias vlc='vlc *.avi'
# play all music files from the current directory #
alias playwave='for i in *.wav; do mplayer "$i"; done'
alias playogg='for i in *.ogg; do mplayer "$i"; done'
alias playmp3='for i in *.mp3; do mplayer "$i"; done'
# play files from nas devices #
alias nplaywave='for i in /nas/multimedia/wave/*.wav; do mplayer "$i"; done'
alias nplayogg='for i in /nas/multimedia/ogg/*.ogg; do mplayer "$i"; done'
alias nplaymp3='for i in /nas/multimedia/mp3/*.mp3; do mplayer "$i"; done'
# shuffle mp3/ogg etc by default #
alias music='mplayer --shuffle *'

#24: Set default interfaces for sys admin related commands

vnstat is console-based network traffic monitor. dnstop is console tool to analyze DNS traffic. tcptrack and iftop commands displays information about TCP/UDP connections it sees on a network interface and display bandwidth usage on an interface by host respectively.

## All of our servers eth1 is connected to the Internets via vlan / router etc  ##
alias dnstop='dnstop -l 5  eth1'
alias vnstat='vnstat -i eth1'
alias iftop='iftop -i eth1'
alias tcpdump='tcpdump -i eth1'
alias ethtool='ethtool eth1'
# work on wlan0 by default #
# Only useful for laptop as all servers are without wireless interface
alias iwconfig='iwconfig wlan0'

#25: Get system memory, cpu usage, and gpu memory info quickly

## pass options to free ## 
alias meminfo='free -m -l -t'
## get top process eating memory
alias psmem='ps auxf | sort -nr -k 4'
alias psmem10='ps auxf | sort -nr -k 4 | head -10'
## get top process eating cpu ##
alias pscpu='ps auxf | sort -nr -k 3'
alias pscpu10='ps auxf | sort -nr -k 3 | head -10'
## Get server cpu info ##
alias cpuinfo='lscpu'
## older system use /proc/cpuinfo ##
##alias cpuinfo='less /proc/cpuinfo' ##
## get GPU ram on desktop / laptop## 
alias gpumeminfo='grep -i --color memory /var/log/Xorg.0.log'

#26: Control Home Router

The curl command can be used to reboot Linksys routers.

# Reboot my home Linksys WAG160N / WAG54 / WAG320 / WAG120N Router / Gateway from *nix.
alias rebootlinksys="curl -u 'admin:my-super-password' ''"
# Reboot tomato based Asus NT16 wireless bridge 
alias reboottomato="ssh admin@ /sbin/reboot"

#27 Resume wget by default

The GNU Wget is a free utility for non-interactive download of files from the Web. It supports HTTP, HTTPS, and FTP protocols, and it can resume downloads too:

## this one saved by butt so many times ##
alias wget='wget -c'

#28 Use different browser for testing website

## this one saved by butt so many times ##
alias ff4='/opt/firefox4/firefox'
alias ff13='/opt/firefox13/firefox'
alias chrome='/opt/google/chrome/chrome'
alias opera='/opt/opera/opera'
#default ff 
alias ff=ff13
#my default browser 
alias browser=chrome

#29: A note about ssh alias

Do not create ssh alias, instead use ~/.ssh/config OpenSSH SSH client configuration files. It offers more option. An example:

Host server10
  IdentityFile ~/backups/.ssh/id_dsa
  user foobar
  Port 30000
  ForwardX11Trusted yes
  TCPKeepAlive yes

You can now connect to peer1 using the following syntax:
$ ssh server10

#30: It’s your turn to share…

## set some other defaults ##
alias df='df -H'
alias du='du -ch'
# top is atop, just like vi is vim
alias top='atop' 
## nfsrestart  - must be root  ##
## refresh nfs mount / cache etc for Apache ##
alias nfsrestart='sync && sleep 2 && /etc/init.d/httpd stop && umount netapp2:/exports/http && sleep 2 && mount -o rw,sync,rsize=32768,wsize=32768,intr,hard,proto=tcp,fsc natapp2:/exports /http/var/www/html &&  /etc/init.d/httpd start'
## Memcached server status  ##
alias mcdstats='/usr/bin/memcached-tool stats'
alias mcdshow='/usr/bin/memcached-tool display'
## quickly flush out memcached server ##
alias flushmcd='echo "flush_all" | nc 11211'
## Remove assets quickly from Akamai / Amazon cdn ##
alias cdndel='/home/scripts/admin/cdn/purge_cdn_cache --profile akamai'
alias amzcdndel='/home/scripts/admin/cdn/purge_cdn_cache --profile amazon'
## supply list of urls via file or stdin
alias cdnmdel='/home/scripts/admin/cdn/purge_cdn_cache --profile akamai --stdin'
alias amzcdnmdel='/home/scripts/admin/cdn/purge_cdn_cache --profile amazon --stdin'

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